Inventor of The 2 way radio

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The pioneer nonpareil of wireless telecommunications is Al Gross. In 1938, he invented the walkie-talkie. In 1948, he pioneered Citizens’ Band (CB) radio. In 1949, he invented the telephone pager. His other inventions include the basics of cordless and cellular telephony.

Gross was born in Toronto in 1918, but grew up in Cleveland, Ohio. He discovered his lifelong enthusiasm for two Way Radio on a steamboat trip on Lake Erie at age 9, after the ship’s radio operator let him listen to the wireless. By age 12, Gross had turned his basement into a radio headquarters, with equipment patched together from junkyards. At age 16, he obtained his amateur radio license — still in effect today.

Gross’ interest and ability had increased by the time he entered the BSEE program at Cleveland’s Case School of Applied Sciences (now part of Case Western Reserve University) in 1936. Determined to exploit the unexplored frequencies above 100 MHz, Gross set about inventing a mobile, lightweight, hand-held two-way radio. In two years, Gross had invented and patented the “walkie-talkie” (1938).

At that time, the Communications Group of the US Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was eager to develop a portable, two-way, air-to-ground communications system. The OSS recruited Gross, who worked for them throughout World War II. By 1941, Gross designed both a ground unit, “Joan,” and an airborne unit, “Eleanor,” which communicated with each other via Hertzian radio waves in a manner virtually impossible to monitor, even behind enemy lines.

The units had an effective range of about 30 miles. The transceiver of the ground unit weighed only 3 1/2 pounds, with a collapsible antenna, and was powered by two B and two D batteries. It could easily be carried and hidden by a soldier on hostile ground. The airborne unit, carried most often in British “Mosquito” bombers, was more complicated, heavier, and fitted with an adjustable, external antenna to transmit and receive at pre-arranged polarization. Although Gross’ Top Secret system was not declassified until 1976, the US Joint Chiefs of Staff have called it one of the most successful wireless intelligence gathering methods ever employed.

After the War, the FCC, which had become aware of Gross’ work, allocated the first frequencies for personal radio service, the Citizens Radio Service Frequency Band (1946). Gross formed a company, Citizens Radio Corporation, to produce two-way radios for personal use; in 1948, his company�ipment was the first to receive FCC approval for use in the new “Citizens’ Band.” Gross sold about 100,000 units himself, most of them to farmers and to the US Coast Guard; he also licensed the technology to various electronics companies.

In 1949, Gross made another breakthrough: he adapted his two-way radios for cordless remote telephonic signaling. That is, he invented and patented the telephone pager, by building discriminating circuitry into a pocket-sized wireless receiver that responded selectively to specific signals. Gross intended for his invention to be used by doctors; and so he attended a medical convention in Philadelphia that year. Nearly all of those healthcare professionals worried the device would upset their patients or even interrupt their golf games. However, New York’s Jewish Hospital did implement Gross’ pager system the next year (1950).

In the 1950s, Gross tried — again, in vain — to interest US telephone companies in his inventions and ideas for mobile telephony. Bell Telephone was not interested, and other companies were afraid of Bell’s monopoly on transmission lines. The FCC, to which Gross had demonstrated his pager system in 1950, finally approved his transceivers in 1958.

Gross continued to invent, earning a total of 12 patents, through the 1950s and ’60s. Eventually, he began working for large corporations, such as Sperry and General Electric, as a specialist in microwave and other electronic communications systems. Since 1990, he has been Senior Staff Engineer at Orbital Sciences Corp.’s Chandler, Arizona facility, where he directs analysis of various electromagnetic elements of aerospace, satellite and military systems.

Besides working full-time, Gross also pursues personal projects. But his greatest enthusiasm is for the presentations he frequently gives to local elementary and high school students on technology and invention. Thus, as Gross likes to put it, “People learn from the old guy who did it the hard way.”

Gross was too far ahead of his time to cash in on his inventions: his patents expired long before the public was ready for CB radio, cell phones and pagers. But his love of the work outweighs any regrets: he always smiles when he says, “If I still had the patents on my inventions, Bill Gates would have to stand aside for me.”

On the other hand, Al Gross has been rich in honors and awards. He has followed up Commendations from the US Defense Department (1969) and President Reagan (1981) with about a dozen awards from national organizations like the IEEE. Most recently, Al Gross won the 2000 Lemelson MIT Lifetime Achievement Award. Gross was honored at the sixth annual Lemelson-MIT Awards Ceremony, held at the American Museum of Natural History in New York on April 27, 2000. .

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Informal Communication

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Besides the flow of information through the standard channels, in every organization a flow of informal information also exists.
In an army as well as in business there are many invisible informal information channels which are important for the mutual understanding and co-operation. Informal contacts between colleagues are a countermeasure against the ubiquitous bureaucracy. When there is a positive atmosphere, employees often take the initiative to redress a situation.

In this way many mistakes are spontaneously fixed. Frictions and problems are quickly spotted and rectified.
Management should stimulate these informal communication channels because it is impossible to cover everything by means of procedures. Good managers understand this and will try to keep these channels open or even create them, like Montgomery did (see case The Phantom System).

Such informal communication channels perform even better when the focus and the strategic goals of the company are understood throughout the entire organization.

Two cases:
Case The Phantom System
General Montgomery, Supreme Commander of Eighth Army in North Africa during WW II (and later in Europe), received – like every Commander – the routine situation reports on a daily basis, which his staff prepared, next to those from the different units of his vast army.
But he did not want to only rely on these routine channels of information. Montgomery took the revolutionary step of establishing his “Phantom” system of liaison officers. These were carefully selected young soldiers chosen for their bravery, their initiative, their manners and their independence.

This corps d’te had unusual powers. They had carte blanche to travel anywhere and observe anything, but had no power of command. They were the eyes and the ears of the commander. Each morning they drove out to the farthermost parts of the front, using motorcycles, jeeps, or aircraft (Piper Cubs) and then returned to report directly to Montgomery late in the afternoon.
They just told him what they saw. In this way Montgomery, in addition to the routine daily reports from the different units, also received the latest first-hand eye witness view from the entire front.

Despite the special position of these young men there was never any friction between them and the units they visited, because of the manner in which Montgomery handled this group of liaison officers and the information they gathered.
A British Carton Cylinder Manufacturer
The sales director of a British manufacturer which made carton cylinders and Icom radios for the protection and transportation of documents and was also specialized in manufacturing products like cigarette filters, carton cylinders for batteries and so on, instructed the drivers of his delivery trucks that when they delivered to customers they should watch to see if any trucks of competitors were also at the delivery yards of his customers.

They reported to him which competitors they saw and because of their friendly contacts built up with the customer’s personnel over the years, they could sometimes even give him detailed information about what products were delivered. One day the board of directors discussed the outsourcing of their logistics to a professional trucking company.
The sales director protested vehemently against this decision because then he would lose his carefully developed eyes and ears. After explaining his motives the board withdrew their decision. To systematically obtain important information about the competition, this director had unwittingly created his own “Phantom” system, just like Montgomery did.

Walkie-Scorchie problems nearly fixed, Land Securities says

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Property company Land Securities said it was close to fixing the problems at its Walkie Talkie City skyscraper (called this because it looks like a website) after the glare from the building melted car parts on the street below over the summer.

Chief executive Robert Noel said the problems at the building, which is still under construction, would not delay tenants moving in or exceed the budget set aside for its 240m share of the development.

“A solution is in the final stages of design and implementation will commence shortly. Despite the solar glare issue of the summer, occupiers have not been blinded to the efficiency and location of the building. We are close to resolving the issue and it will not delay occupation nor inflate budgeted cost,” he said.

The glare from the 37-storey building, officially known as 20 Fenchurch Street but which has now been nicknamed the “Walkie-Scorchie”, was so strong that a motorist claimed it melted part of his Jaguar parked on the street below.

Business owners in the area said the reflected sun rays caused paintwork to blister and tiles to crack, while others proved the heat was so intense it was possible to fry an egg.

Noel said that the solar shading solution would be installed when the weather improved, and in time for when office workers move in next year in September.

Land Securities is in a joint venture with Canary Wharf Group on the scheme, designed by the architect Rafael Violy.

Violy said in September he predicted the building might reflect hot sun rays to the street below but “didn’t realise it was going to be so hot”.

The building is 56% pre-let, with negotiations on a further 20% of space close to completion.

In terms of Land Securities’ retail portfolio, Noel said while there were signs the UK economy was improving and “the retail market has turned a corner”, consumers remained under pressure.

“Although there is improvement in the UK economy, headwinds persist in retail property as we believe the consumer, with lower real income and faced with rising non-discretionary expenditure, will remain under pressure.

“With an increasing population and healthy demand in all sectors, we view London property as distinct, although not divorced, from the overall UK economy.”

Announcing first-half results for the six months to 30 September, he said net assets per share a key measure for property companies rose 3.6% to 994p from 31 March.

The rise was driven by an increase in value of its portfolio and profits on disposals. Underlying earnings increased 8.9% to 156.5m.

He said the market was “highly competitive”, which meant sales of assets would likely exceed spending and acquisitions in the second half.

“It is likely that revenue profit will be slightly lower than in the first half as we lose income from sales.”

Land Securities opened its latest shopping centre, Trinity Leeds, in March, with plans underway for new retail schemes in Glasgow, Oxford and Guildford.

The company announced that Sir Stuart Rose, the former chief executive of Marks & Spencer, will step down as a non-executive director in January.

At the same time Cressida Hogg, the managing partner of infrastructure at 3i, and Edward Bonham Carter, chief executive at Jupiter Fund Management, will join as non-executive directors.

The company recommended a first-half dividend of 15.2p a share, up 2.7%.

Source – http://www.theguardian.com/business/2013/nov/12/walkie-scorchie-glare-problems-nearly-fixed-land-securities

Building Relationships How 2 way radios Make Construction Work Easier

For a long time people have been telling me that family, love and happiness are the most important things in life…These days I realise that I’m able to take or leave all that so long as I have this 2 way radio vehicle in the world.

Instant communication is of vital importance to construction workers the world over. Radios are part of the lifeblood of the construction industry. It is not an understatement to call the use of two-way radio systems vital to the wellbeing of the industry, not only in the interests of communication and efficiency, but also for safety.

Busy construction sites are actually one of the more challenging areas for 2 Way Radio networks to navigate. Building sites present numerous challenges for two-way radio networks, such as background noise, signal coverage, ground to crane communications, security issues and subcontractors requiring access to the system.

In addition, the hardware itself needs to be solid and durable. A construction-site radio should able to endure harsh weather, heavy impacts (such as being dropped) and possible exposure to water, paint, adhesives and sawdust, without adversely affecting performance. That’s quite a tall order, but the radios are up to it.

David Ashfield is an experienced British I.T consultant who has worked on numerous sites throughout the country as a subcontractor. He very kindly spoke to us about his experiences with construction site radio systems.

“When I was on site, I usually had two walkie-talkies at any given time” he said, “the company I was working for had its own set and the site contractors had theirs. We used our own set to communicate with our own team, mainly to clear the traffic on the main network. However, our team needed access to the main network as well. While I was working on software, for example, I needed to stay in constant contact with the electricians.”

Mr. Ashfield said that, during his most recent site job, 5 different teams of subcontractors shared the same network. A main office switchboard connected the teams. Trained professionals operated the switchboard, filling yet another pivotal role in any major construction job.

Safety was of paramount importance at all times, he said. The secure channel was used for emergencies only. It was mainly employed to inform the teams of impending safety tests and fire drills.

Construction sites are put up swiftly and efficiently and, over time, buildings are born from them. These impressive efforts are achieved by the talented teams of engineers, architects, electricians, builders and, of course, people like Mr. Ashfield, who go in every day and work together to create new and interesting spaces.

However, these achievements would be far more difficult if it wasn’t for the Motorola 2 way radios they constantly employ.

Two way radio For Protected And Secure Communication!

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Walkie talkie radios are a fantastic communication system, which help us maintain in contact all the time and in the course of any climate issue.nThey are a lot more productive than cell telephones. Walkie talkie radios can even perform in severe storms as the indicators are very strong and the speaker of these radios is quite loud and distinct. Exactly where security and basic safety is crucial, walkie talkie radios are the greatest decision.nnEmploying a 2 Way Radio It is extremely easy to use a walkie talkie radio. It is a push-to-chat unit that enables you to hear even though the other speaks. The button when pushed allows the transmission of voice from one particular walkie talkie to yet another. Owing to the presence of a speaker, you can effortlessly handle even a team of folks.nnFor the radios to be in sync, they require to be established at the same frequency.nWith the improvement of electronic two-way radios, transmission of messages from both the speaker and the receiver has been attainable just like mobile phones. This is achievable by way of two distinct radio frequencies transmitted at the identical time from each finishes.nAdvantages of Using A Electronic Two-Way Radio Systemn* Exceptional seem clarityn* Reduction in noise and sound interferencenn* Price-efficientn* Extra characteristics like GPS, text also providedn* Can operate in both settings-electronic and analoguen* Electronic two-way radio batteries are more effective and function for a more time time time period than analogue onesnTwo-way radio accessories like batteries, headset, and the case are also easily available on the internet and at a reasonable price tag. They are as very easily accessible as a laptop battery or any other digital solution in the market. If you intend to improve the effectiveness of your enterprise, acquire walkie talkies (digital two-way systems) that are a much more safe signifies of interaction as properly.nnnBuying Walkie Talkie RadiosnWe see several online commercials in which two-way radios for sale. However, we ought to get treatment of particular items before selecting the 1 for our use.n* Utilization goal: The goal for which a walkie talkie is to be utilized ought to be quite very clear. This will support us in choosing the right model. If the use is for formal objective, you must pick a licensed product if it is just for fun and everyday activities, an unlicensed model will serve the purpose.nn* Attributes required: The distance that is needed for communication is also a factor alongside with the coverage area, which is crucial for its utilization. Tall structures and hills can have an effect on the transmission of signals. So, these items must be kept in head.n* Add-ons accessible: Accessories like chargers, battery, and adaptor are equally important whilst picking a walkie talkie radio. They also determine the efficiency of the device when place to use.nnWalkie talkie radios are useful the two outside and indoor actions. Today, they are a popular decision for firms as a secure and confident signifies of interaction.

Walkie Talkies A Transient Information

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walkie talkie and cell phoneWalkie talkies are extremely commonly used for conversation in amongst two factors.nThe fifty per cent duplex channels let only one particular radio to transmit at one phase of time nas effectively as the other would require to just pay focus. It really is only one way conversation which is feasible.nThey’ve created in speakers in them and therefore do not will need to get a independent earphone like that of a cellphone to be held to the ear.nThe handheld units are comparable to box radio but fitted with an antenna and each designs get linked to radio stations that transmit and acquire messages from a fastened phase or nnvariety.nThe credit rating score of inventing the really very first radio transmitter and receiver goes to Motorola. Motorola produced and coined the phrase ‘two Way Radio’ and the product was nknown as Motorola SCR -three hundred that was dependent on frequency modulation. This model was a backpack mounted model.nIt was during World War two that Motorola developed the ˜Handi Talkie”, the older edition with the present day ‘walkie talkie’. The functionality was not as outstanding since the n’walkietalkie’ but still it was the quite 1st self contained and handheld device that was out there within the business.nnRight now you get a great offer of versions and kinds of ‘walkie talkie’ which are out there for use in diverse features. The rates as properly as the assortment and large quality nin the units vary relying on its use. These are appropriate now utilised in a selection of plans such as protection sector, out of doors recreation, several organizations too as npublic group administration and security organizations.nWith enhanced technological innovation the ‘walkietalkie’ have also change out to be revolutionary, far a lot more compact and individual pleasurable. The industrial ‘walkietalkie’ have a tendency to be lots nnof studier, larger sets with guarding casing and function on limited frequencies but with clarity. Even so the private and man or woman sets are likely to be sleeker, compact and nmild body fat and may possibly run on really a few channels which are available within the band, but have a tendency to lack in clarity.nYou get ‘walkie talkie’ for youngsters also. These are really standard and minimalist highlighted units and minimal tech when in contrast to the other people. They are not quite expensive and do nnnot require a license and run in a variety of few of meters only.

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Midland 2 way radio Your Perfect Option For Experience Device

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Do you appreciate to go outside? Do you like to invest time with nature?nGet a image of your forest like a memento? Do you want to commit the night time sleeping inside of a tent? Or nenjoy a feast cooked inside of a bon hearth? And wake up inside the morning listening to the birds sing? Do you also need to get in contact with each other with your appreciate ones and nclose pals? Need to have to let them be up-to-date to your tales? But you mobile telephone is out of signal. And even worse, you might be within the wild. Can an individual aid you fast when faced nnwith hazard? In situation you don’t want to get the risk, then get a Midland Walkie Talkie. Created from the walkie talkie experts, you will definitely adore it.nSo what’s its difference from other walkie talkies? Do not feel it’s just an normal toy, for the purpose that it has up to date functions to grow to be happy of.

It involves a ndistinct signal and considerable definition audio that may possibly absolutely will not inform any difference with in simple fact talking to somebody. It has plenty of channels that enable you to talk nnprivately to someone with out any person obtaining a likelihood to choosing the indicator. Then, its signal can cover up a prolonged distance you will not fret about everything, even in a nmoving vehicle.nSounds instead intriguing? Then hold out for additional. You might select from types with A-A-A batteries or rechargeable batteries which can ultimate for as much as seventeen several hours. It has na keypad lock strategy which minimizes the menace of button pressing when not in use. It is light-weight and little you can place it wherever you like, even in your backpacks nnor aspect pockets. It has distinct and comprehensible directions so you’ll by no signifies be puzzled. It really is shock evidence, so you do not have to be concerned if you slide it out for nyour hand. And it is h2o resistant, so you do not need to be worried ought to you unintentionally sink it in h2o. Isn’t it exceptional?nSo, no matter whether or not you plan to camp by itself or with your liked types consistently offer a Midland Walkie Talkie with you. It expenses from $20 to $100, but it really is a amazing nninvestment. As you’ll be able to see, Midland Walkie Talkies truly are a great method and are know for their substantial quality compared to the other walkie talkies on the nmarket. They are uncomplicated to use, and relatively compact in contrast to rivals variations creating them a excellent assortment in the extended operate.

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