Using the VHF omnidirectional range in a flight plan

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What is a VHF omnidirectional range used in a flight plan?

VOR which is short for VHF omnidirectional SL4000 radio (stevegsltsz.wordpress.com) range, is a type of short range radio navigation system for aircraft in a flight plan, enabling aircraft to determine their position and stay on course by receiving radio signals transmitted by a network of fixed ground radio beacons, with a receiver unit.

They use radio frequencies in the very high frequency (VHF) band from 108 to 117.95 MHz. Developed in the US beginning in 1937 and deployed in 1946, VOR is the standard air navigational system in the world used by bother commercial and general aviation. There are about 3000 VOR stations around the world.

History and background
Developed from earlier Visual-Aural Range (VAR) systems, the VOR was designed to provide 360 courses and from the station, selectable by the pilot. Early vacuum tube transmitters with mechanically rotated antennas were widely installed in the 1950s and began to be replaced with fully solid state units in the early 1960s.

They became the major radio navigation system of the 1960s when they took over from the older radio beacon and four course system. Some of the older range stations survived, with the four course directional features removed, as non directional low or medium frequency radio beacons.

Features used for a flight plan
VORs signals provide considerably greater accuracy and reliability than NDBs due to a combination of factors. VHF radio is less vulnerable to diffraction or course bending around terrain features and coastlines. Phase encoding suffers less interference from thunderstorms.

VOR signals offer a predictable accuracy of 90 meters, 2 sigma at 2nm from a pair of VOR beacons; as compared to the accuracy of unaugmented GPS which is less than 13 meters. VOR stations rely on the ‘line of sight’ because they operate in VHF band so if the transmitting antenna cannot be seen on a perfectly clear day from the receiving antenna, a useful signal cannot be received.

This limits VOR (and DME) range to the horizon or closer if mountains intervene. Although the modern solid state transmitting equipment requires much less maintenance than the older units, an extensive network of stations, needed to provide reasonable coverage along main air routes, is a significant cost in operating current airway systems in a flight plan.

Why aren’t we smarter already Evolutionary limits on cognition

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2 way radio history(Medical Xpress) — We put a lot of energy into improving our memory, intelligence, and attention. There are even drugs that make us sharper, such as Ritalin and caffeine. But maybe smarter isn’t really all that better. A new paper published in Current Directions in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, warns that there are limits on how smart humans can get, and any increases in thinking ability are likely to come with problems.
The authors looked to evolution to understand about why humans are only as smart as we are and not any smarter. “A lot of people are interested in drugs that can enhance cognition in various ways,” says Thomas Hills of the University of Warwick, who cowrote the article with Ralph Hertwig of the University of Basel. “But it seems natural to ask, why aren’t we smarter already?”
Tradeoffs are common in evolution. It might be nice to be eight feet tall, but most hearts couldn’t handle getting blood up that high. So most humans top out under six feet. Just as there are evolutionary tradeoffs for physical traits, Hills says, there are tradeoffs for intelligence. A baby’s brain size is thought to be limited by, among other things, the size of the mother’s pelvis; bigger brains could mean more deaths in childbirth, and the pelvis can’t change substantially without changing the way we stand and walk.
Drugs like Ritalin and amphetamines help people pay better attention. But they often only help people with lower baseline abilities; people who don’t have trouble paying attention in the first place can actually perform worse when they take attention-enhancing drugs. That suggests there is some kind of upper limit to how much people can or should pay attention. “This makes sense if you think about a focused task like driving,” Hills says, “where you have to pay attention, but to the right things—which may be changing all the time. If your attention is focused on a shiny billboard or changing the channel on the Icom radio, you’re going to have problems.”
It may seem like a good thing to have a better memory, but people with excessively vivid memories have a difficult life. “Memory is a double-edged sword,” Hills says. In post-traumatic stress disorder, for example, a person can’t stop remembering some awful episode. “If something bad happens, you want to be able to forget it, to move on.”
Even increasing general intelligence can cause problems. Hills and Hertwig cite a study of Ashkenazi Jews, who have an average IQ much higher than the general European population. This is apparently because of evolutionary selection for intelligence in the last 2,000 years. But, at the same time, Ashkenazi Jews have been plagued by inherited diseases like Tay-Sachs disease that affect the nervous system. It may be that the increase in brain power has caused an increase in disease.
Given all of these tradeoffs that emerge when you make people better at thinking, Hills says, it’s unlikely that there will ever be a supermind. “If you have a specific task that requires more memory or more speed or more accuracy or whatever, then you could potentially take an enhancer that increases your capacity for that task,” he says. “But it would be wrong to think that this is going to improve your abilities all across the board.”